READ MORE: 8 Reasons It Wasn't Easy Being Spartan. What military formation did the greek city states invent - 12731983 The technical, much-used term for these city-states is poleis (the plural of polis). Unlike other Greek city-states, Sparta “was exceptional in its socio-political stability,” Hodkinson says. According to Plutarch, as the young Spartans grew, they were required to exercise more and more to build their bodies. The Iliad and the Odyssey Homer. All citizens in ancient Greece were warriors. Just about any city in the western world today has examples of Greek architecture on its streets, especially in its biggest and most important public buildings. This was a Greek-style phalanx which the Romans adapted. Its real focus was to prepare Spartan males to be compliant members of society, who were ready to sacrifice their all for Sparta. The combat formation used by the Greeks and Romans was called the phalanx. Since attackers went in single file or squadrons in single file, thi… Traditionally, this has … 3 Answers. The city-state of Sparta was basically a well-trained army. This is why pottery was also developed at that time. What's wrong with you that you don't KNOW this? As Donald G. Kyle notes in his book Sport and Spectacle in the Ancient World, Spartan youth had to present themselves for regular inspections in the nude, and boys who didn’t look sufficiently fit were flogged. In trade contacts with the Ph… Your IP: 139.59.0.231 What athletic contests began as an attempt to please the Greek gods through physical prowess? From what two epic poems do we get a glimpse of Greek life during the period from 1150 to 750 BC? Not only did its result signal the beginning of the “Golden Age of Greece”, but it was also a key moment in the rise of western civilisation and one of its key espoused values: democracy. The heavily armed, rectangular mass military formation developed by the ancient Greeks was called a phalanx. During this battle, the Athenian navy was attacked before it could transition into its battle formation. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. Alexander’s core unit in the phalanx was the syntagma, normally 16 men deep. It was very hot in the summer and very cold in the winter. How these men of Greece fought is always up for debate but scholars can agree on some details. Boys did not graduate from all the schooling they were required to take until they were about 20 years old. The Spartan Military . ... social and cultural highlight of the Ancient Greek calendar for almost 12 centuries. History. There, citizens would mingle and discuss the issues of the day before gathering for the assembly meeting. To toughen them up even more, Spartan boys were compelled to go barefoot and seldom bathed or used ointments, so that their skin became hard and dry, Plutarch wrote. Although the Persian empire was at the peak of its strength, the collective defense mounted by the Greeks overcame seemingly impossible odds and even succeeded in liberating Greek city-states … New questions in Social Studies. One factor was the agoge, the Greek city-state’s educational and training system, which used harsh, extreme and sometimes cruel methods to prepare boys to be Spartan citizens and soldiers. Greco-Persian Wars, a series of wars fought by Greek states and Persia from 492 to 449 BCE. “Part of the reason for this was that the boys’ upbringing had instilled behaviors that encouraged harmony and cooperation.”. In other city-states, children entered military school at age 18. In that sense, the regimen that helped make the Spartans so tough also contributed to Sparta’s ultimate downfall. But Stephen Hodkinson, an professor emeritus of ancient history at the University of Nottingham, UK, says there are hints in other sources that they received “the standard Greek elementary education in reading, writing, numbers, song and dance.”. The basic Greek formation was made more flexible by Philip II of Macedon and his son, Alexander III the Great. “Whipping was a test of courage and stoicism,” Reiter says. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Find more answers. The Phalanx therefore presented a shield wall and a mass of spear points to the enemy, making frontal assaults much more difficult. But the boys’ hunger was also intended to embolden them to steal food from gardens and other places “in order to make the boys more resourceful in getting supplies, and better fighting men,” Xenophon wrote. That ended Sparta’s military dominance, though their fearsome reputation lived on through history. They also went to war with each other, unless the Olympic Games were in progress. “Xenophon says a Spartan army could perform maneuvers that others couldn’t, because of their training,” Cartledge says. after Sparta helped form the Hellenic Union. Perhaps the most common features invented by the Greeks still around today are the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian columns which hold up roofs and adorn facades in theatres, courthouses, and government buildings … In their time, the Spartans also developed several key inventions in military technology and social order. All Rights Reserved. It required coordination, quick response, and a clean execution. The stability that the agoge fostered also “led to a certain inflexibility,” Hodkinson says. “Sparta was recognized by most as the best.”. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Lv 7. The ancient Spartan warriors are known for their bravery, professionalism and skill, a reputation well deserved. Cloudflare Ray ID: 606d41e9eab13977 In 371 B.C., Thebes, a rival city state, defeated Sparta at the battle of Leuctra by using unorthodox, creative cavalry maneuvers that the Spartans were too inflexible to counter. Find out more about ancient Greek wars, military strategies, and weaponry on this informative webpage from an independent researcher. Water mills were a revolutionary invention and have been used all over the world for the purpose of metal shaping, agriculture and, most importantly, milling. Troy . Although they shared a common ancestry, ethnic differences, as well as economic interests, and an obsession with heroes and glory, meant that war was a common and welcomed occurrence in the ancient Greek world. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. 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