This will clearly explain the force of the epithet of "Medhapatim" in Rig Veda, 1-43-4 "Gathapatim, Medhapatim Rudram Jalashabhesajam, that samyoh sumnam imabe" (We seek from Rudra, the lord of songs, the lord of Sacrifices who possesses healing remedies, his auspicious favour) as also "king of sacrifices" (Rig. Just as the word 'blue' denotes not the blue colour only, but also the lotus which is of a blue colour, so does the word 'universe' also denotes Brahman. As darkness is necessary for rest and recuperation, so this power of God also works for our rest and recuperation and salvation. The Svetasvataropanishad is a short Upanishad consisting of only 113 Mantras (Sacred Verses) divided into six chapters. May we not hate each other. He is called the 'father of the worlds.' In this Upanishad Siva or Rudra is declared to be the creator, preserver and destroyer of the world. "His Supreme Sakti is spoken of as manifold, inherent, endued with the activity of knowledge and life." The Postulate of God's supreme Transcendency is the special effort of the Agama Philosophy to make out, and as this was the Highest End and Truth, it was called Siddhanta Par excellence as distinguished from the Vedanta which led up the aspirant only to certain spiritual stages. Svetasvatara Upanishad, guessed to have been written around 400 B.C.E. But every statement made to God, by any of the names, we have mentioned above, clearly refers to the one, without a second, the Highest Brahman, which is also Nirguna. It is a system of dualism, it is also a system of non-dualism, but it differs from the other schools of dualism and non-dualism. Chandogya Upanishad Translation by Swami Nikhilananda (Upanishads). In: 108 Upanishads, Krishnapaksha Yajurveda, Svetasvatara Upanishad Tags: Print Email Translated by Swami Tyagisananda – Published by Sri Ramakrishna Math, Chennai Click here to know more The Ten Spiritual Conquests Of The Soul By V. V. Raman. As there was nothing inherently vicious and destructive to all true religion and morality in this system of Badarayana, the Tamil Philosophers welcomed this view also and declared they did not see much difference in the two views and ends postulated by both the old and new school. These Upanishads are quoted by name in the Puranas and particular passages are also commented on. ), The Saiva Religion and Saiva Advaita Siddhanta Philosophy. But for the these beginnings we have to go far behind the days of the Mahabharata and the Puranas, for the Agama doctrines and rituals are fully bound up with these. Is it only death, and nothing beyond? The original English translation of the Svetasvatara Upanishad by Jayaram V with explanatory notes, Chapter 4 (i. Kapila increased the number of categories he believed in, to 19 which he grouped under Purusha and Prodana. Wherefore it is Brahman who in the opening passage is stated to be the object of worship, that is also spoken of as manomaya, as partaking of the nature of manas, and so on. The Shvetashvatara Upanishad (Sanskrit स्वेताश्वतरोपनिशद IAST ) is an ancient Sanskrit text embedded in the Yajurveda. This doctrine is clearly expounded even in the puranic texts such as the following:- "The body of the God of Gods is this universe, moving and unmoving. The Upanishad is one of the 33 Upanishads from Taittiriyas, and associated with the Shvetashvatara tradition within Karakas sakha of the Yajurveda. And the Buddhists were accordingly called Mayavadis. All these schools were based on a certain number of tattvas or categories. Appaya Dikshita's Siddhanta-Lesa-Sangraha. Though he held on to the distinction of the supreme and the Human Spirit, he stoutly fought against the old Sankhyan view (comprising nearly all the six schools we enumerated above) that Matter was an independent entity from spirit, though like Leibnitz he never denied its reality. Peace! The Katha Upanishad (Sanskrit: कठोपनिषद् or कठ उपनिषद्) (Kaṭhopaniṣad) is one of the mukhya (primary) Upanishads, embedded in the last short eight sections of the Kaṭha school of the Krishna Yajurveda. Tat Tvam Asi – You Are That! Some Aspects Of The God-Head (By Mr. J. M. Nallaswami Pillai, B.A., B.L), The Spiritual Value Of Manikka Vacagar's Tiruvacagam. In the exposition of these paths, it opened out a thoroughly reasoned system of theoretic Philosophy, neither contradicting our experience, nor causing violence to the most cherished of our sentiments, both moral and religious; a system of thought which was progressive and built on an adamantine basis, step by step leading to higher, knowledge: a system* [* Cf. But when he sees the other, Isa, contented, and knows His glory, then his grief passes away.". Whilst exploring concepts of time, space, nature, power, deities, heavens, karma and elements it gives us a divine vision of viewing this multidimensional and vast world. Or is that there are no such representatives today? According to Webster, the word 'personal' implies limitation, but other eminent persons like Emerson, Lotze, &c., say there is no such implication. Some of them have been mentioned in the notes to my translation. In dealing with the personality of God, who is called in the Upanishads, as Deva, Hara, Vasi, Siva, Purusha, Brahman, Paramatma, Isa, and Ishwara, &c., we have to remark that the Upanishad makes no distinction between a Higher and a Lower Brahman; rather, there are no statements made about the Lower God or Gods, except one verse in V. S, where the Supreme Lord and Mahatma, is said to have created the Lords, and Brahma or Hrianyagarbha is referred to as such a lord. The famous passages are what occur in the Chandogya Upanishad, commencing with the sentences "There is the city* [* This City is exactly in modern symbolism in the Great Temple of Chidambaram.] Sankhya, the theoretic Philosophy came to be called Sankhya as distinguished from the practical Religion and code of Morality. Badarayana would say that no seed is necessary and the earth alone is sufficient.] And the chief place is assigned to Rudra and apart from other gods. Brahmans versed in the Veda know two bodies of this God, one awful, one auspicious; and these two bodies have again many forms. Death Before Death By R. S. SUBRAMANIAM Esq., Colombo. And this brings out again the reason why this Chit is called Akasa the most subtle and invisible and omnipresent element we have in Nature. See Lalita Sahasranama Commentary under 'Siva.'] 12)," dwells in the cave (of the heart) of all beings," (iii. Neither should it be supposed that the partaking of the nature of man as is a characteristic mark of a samsarin; for Brahman may limit Himself by assuming a shape which can form an object of worship.". Related Videos. 1972. Particular conditions are necessary to get the desired outcome. 16), and is beyond all tatvas. So much so, when Badarayana's system came into vogue in Southern India, it was recognized as a distinct school. It gets its name from Rishi Svetasvatara who taught the truth contained in it to his disciples. However fierce the sun may be, yet his existence is absolutely essential to the growth and maturity of all vegetation in the tropics. 5-3-2). Apart from Sakti, He cannot be the Omniscient, the Omnipotent, the cause of all the all controlling, the all-adorable, the all-gracious, the means of attaining all aspirations, and the omnipresent; and, moreover, such grand designations as "Mahesvara", the Supreme Lord, "Mahadeva," the Supreme Deity, and Rudra, the expeller of pain, cannot apply to him. Any book in Tamil and Sanskrit taken at random will at once disillusion him, and he will find that the only God held up for the highest worship is the highest Nirguna Parama Siva, and not one of the trinity. So far, there can be no doubt on the nature of the God-head described in our Upanishad. But the word to be noted here is the word 'other' 'Anya' which is almost a techhincal term or catch word to mean God, the Supreme. Therefore such passages as "All is Rudra verily" teach that Brahman is denoted by all words. Softly it comes down upon the tiny seeds and the tender buds and covers them up lovingly, so that from all the stern rigour of the world without, they are safely sheltered. Whence are we born? "Adore the most adorable Isana, Brahma, Vishnu, Rudra, Indra and others having an origin. Ar. And the meaning of the words Akasa, and Vyoma has also to be carfully noted. 6-32 and 33 Chandog VII. That non-dual Lord rules over all those causes —time, the self, and the rest. கோ. (Bri. In a most beautiful address on the famous text of St. Paul which runs, "We, all, with unveiled face, reflecting as a mirror, the Glory of the Lord, are transformed into the same image, from Glory to Glory, even as from the Lord the Spirit.". It says that pradhana or nature is not an independent entity but belongs to the self of the divine, devatma-sakti.God is the mayin, the maker of the world, which is maya or made by Him. 11). And the same mistake is committed by outsiders in supporting that the God of the Saivas is only one of the trinity. For a comprehensive list of GRETIL encodings and formats see: Niyatyadhastat prabrute ruparisthah pumanayam Vidyatatvamidam proktem. (iii. The Bestower of all prosperity, the Lord of all, Sambhu, He should be contemplated in the middle of the Akasa. The fifteenth khanda of the last Prapathaka of Chandogya Upanishad also traces the line of teachers in a similar way and there is a similar statement in the Manduka Upanishad and others. Dikshit, A Synopsis of The Lectures on the Saivagamas By Mr. V. V. Ramanan. Sveta Intro || Sveta Ch.1 || Sveta Ch.2 || Sveta Ch.3 || Sveta Ch.4 || Sveta Ch.5 || Sveta Ch.6. From his smoky colour, he is called Dhurjati. When each Hymn of the Rig Veda has its own author, it cannot be any surprise that each particular Upanishad should have an individual author; and we don't suppose the Professor inclines to the orthodox view that the Veda and the Upanishads had no human authors, and were revealed. The Svetasvatara Upanishad By J. M. Nallaswami Pillai, B.A., B.L. சிவபுண்ணியத்தெளிவு - விளக்கவுரை - தொடர்ச்சி வழங்குபவர் சீகம்பட்டி சிவ சு. 16, Chapter iii, that the gender changes frequently, according as the author thinks either of the Brahman or its impersonation as "Isa, Lord." And Upanishad is also derived from Upa near, ni quite, sad to perish. This fullness proceeds from That fullness. The whole universe of the sat and the asat is the body of Him who is on high. 28, last para. I hope it appeals to you as well.) And the texts we have above quoted will for once prove the danger of surmises as to the date of an Upanishad for the sole reason that it uses the words Siva or Isa or Isana and Rudra. He whom Self (God) chooses, by him the self (God) can be gained." Why we are required to contemplate God as Akasa, Light or Chit is, that by this Light alone we can know Him, and as such Light; and it is as Light, Chit, God is immanent in the world, and omnipresent. Wherefore as the Master, Isvara Himself is the cause of the trembling of the whole universe.". Garbe, The Philosophy of Ancient India. * [* Note how often the Supreme is called the Golden-coloured, and Sunlike in the Upanishads.] As this yoga postulated the highest end achieved by a study of the Vedas, which were set forth in these Upanishads, it was also coming slowly to be called Vedanta. It divided all philosophy and religion into four paths or Margas, called respectively Chariya, Kriya, Yoga and Gnana; and these were otherwise called Dasa Marga, Satputra Marga, Saha Marga and San Marga. 3, Leipzig : F. A. Brockhaus, OCLC 459808660 Invocation. That the doctrine of Bhakti is found well set forth in the oldest Upanishads and the Vedas will be apparent by reading the texts collated by Dr. Muir in his learned "Metrical translations from Sanskrit" under the heading of 'Shraddha and Bhakti.' It only remains for us now to point out that the second verse of the first adhyaya is mistranslated by Roer, Max Muller, Mead and others. And the famous Satarudriyam which is praised in the Upanishads and in the Mahabharat forms also a central portion of this central Veda. By Francis Kingsbury, Saiva Siddhanta or Suddha-Advaita By A. Raghava Aiyar, The Key of Knowledge OR The Fundamental Experiences Of The Sanctified in Spirit By P.Ramanathan, Image Worship By Tamby Rajah Esq, Colombo, The Role of the Saivagamas in the Saiva Ritual System By Jean Filliozat, The Souls - Their Relation to Brahman By L.D. Accordingly the passages "All this, verily, is Brahman" refers to Brahman whose body the whole of the sentient and unsentient universe is. (ii. Use the list to search titles on archive.org.) And during the Upanishad period and even in the times of the Mahabharata the word had not lost its general significance. As the story in the Kena Upanishad will show, the most powerful of the Rig Veda deities, Indra and Agni and Vayu and Varuna were also relegated to a secondary place; and the worship of the only One, without a second, the consort of Uma, Haimavati, was commenced. ", "This passage may be explained as follows: The origin, existence and end of all this depends on Brahman. "Brahman being all-Formed, it is but right to say "all is Brahman" and every one be peaceful and worship Brahman." And in the words "He entered the more hidden from (or than) the hidden one" &c., his entering into the universe is given as a reason for the whole universe being his own form. Accordingly in the Atharva Siras, it has been declared by Isana as follows:-, And then was declared by him in the words "I am Brahman," that the whole universe is his own form. P. 30. List of Upanishad Files at Digital Library of India (DLI is no more. "Two birds, inseparable friends, cling to the same tree. And the terms used in our text is kala, Svabho or Kala, Niyati, Ichcha, or Ragam, Bhuta or Vidya and Yoni or Suddha Maya, and Purusha or soul. The Mystic Works Of Sivagrayogin; Nature Of The Jiva By Mr. J.M. "The Tantras, as we have said, represent the Vedic rituals in a modified form, and before any one jumps into the most absurd conclusions about them, I will advise him to read the Tantras in connection with the Brahmanas, especially of the Adhwarya portion. 24). And the story of Rudra destroying Daksha's sacrifice, and disgracing the Gods who took part in the sacrifice with the sequel of His consort, named then Dakshayani (the fruit or spirit of sacrifice) becoming reborn as Uma, (wisdom or Brahmagnan) Haimavati, would seem to go before the story in the Kena Upanishad. "He is the one God, (Eko Deva), hidden in all beings, all pervading, the Antaratma of all things, watching over all works, dwelling in all beings, the witness, the perceiver, the Only One, Nirguna (Being) (vi. This, the Vedanta held to be insufficient unless it was accompanied by earnestness and love and by the contemplation of a Supreme Being. Up. Atman is the eighth body of Siva the Paramesvara, pervading all other bodies. Before we enter into the discussion of the philosophic import of this Upanishad, we have to note the great difficulty felt nearly by all European scholars who are brought up solely in the school of Sankara in interpreting this Upansishad, a difficulty which has equally been felt with regard to the Philosophy of the Gita. And so on. Svetasvatara Upanishad . And Prof. Max Muller is no doubt correct in drawing attention to the fact that the conception of a mere Impersonal Self may be posterior to the conception of God as Siva, Rudra and Agni. Kalidasa playfully brings out this idea in the following lines: However awful the aspects of a fierce storm, with its thunder and lightning, may be, yet no one can appreciate its beneficence more than the dwellers in the Indian soil, the land of so many famines. T"he Veda itself and the whole circle of sacred science are quite as sweepingly consigned to the second place. The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, translated from the Sanskrit with an outline of the philosophy of the Upanishads and an annotated bibliography, by Robert Ernest Hume (Oxford University Press, 1921). "Purushasyatu, Bhoktrivam, Pratipamaaya, Bhojanecha Prayanatah. Hence the Sruti. to well into the Current Era. 18 and 19), "From Sakti up to earth, (the whole world) is born of the principle Siva. By the way, this Sharaddha and Bhakti is not to be understood as a manifestation of feeling only at one stage of man's spiritual evolution and unnecessary at another stage, but this love is essential to the aspirant whether he is a Dasamargi, Satputramargi, Yogamargi or Gnanamargi. We stated that the different schools differed in the enumeration of the tattavas or categories but most of them stopped with Prakriti or Pradhana and Purusha, the highest in theor list, the 24th and 25th principal (Vide, Senthinathaiyar's table of tattvas, published in Madras, 1899), but the Siddhnata school postulated above this, other tatvas or principles, making up the whole number into 36. And even in this idea of God, there was practically very little difference between Kapila and Patanjali. May our study be vigorous and effective. "Know the Atman only and away with everything else; it alone is the bridge to immortality." (cit. Saivism is a ritual marga, a Bhakti marga, a yoga marga, a gnana marga. The Hindu Ideal of Womanhood By T. Rama Krishna, Karma And Reincarnation By Prof. V. Muthukumaraswami Mudaliar, Light Of Truth (Or) Unmai Vilakkam By J.M. He meets in his own way the arguments adduced to show that this is a modern Upanishad and that it is a sectarian Upanishad, an Upanishad of the Sankhya and of Bhakti school and so on, and his conclusions are that " No real argument has ever been brought forward to invalidate the tradition which represents it as belonging to the Taittriya or Black Yajur Veda," and he points out that it "holds a very high rank among Upanishads" and that its real drift is the same as the Doctrine of the Vedanta Philosophy. As Badarayana professed expressly to interpret the Upanishad or Vedanta texts, his school of Philosophy was stereotyped by the phrase 'Vedanta' and by collecting all the texts in Tamil down even to the time of Tayumanavar (16th century) containing references to Vedanta, we could prove what the special view of Badarayana was. Bhavanasya Pitaram,' VI. Oṁ. The Nastika postulated four and only four tattvas, namely earth, air, fire and water and would not even believe in Akas or ether. Phillips, Sivagnana Botham of Meykandar with English Translation - Part 2 - By J M Nallaswami Pillai, Bronzes and Siva Worship By Sir P. Arunachalam, An Interpretative Translation of the Twelve Sutras of the Siva-Gnaana-Bodham By T.N. By taking this objection they mean to imply also that it is modern. As the Pati of all sacrifices, He is the fulfiller of sacrifices, 'Yajna sidham' (Rig. In this Upanishad Siva or Rudra is declared to be the creator, preserver and destroyer of the world. 28 are the categories of the Vedanti, 24 categories belong to Vaishnavas, 26 categories are those of the Mayavadi." It was during this time that the philosophy of India spread into and permeated the thought of Europe, and Professor Garbe has lucidly proved in his short History of "The Philosophy of Ancient India," that the influence received by the Greeks down to the neo-Platonic school was almost Sankhyan in its character. The Yogi who has reached the highest state "Sees all in God and God in all." Professor Garbe and MacDonnell however, in their recent works,* [* Garbe's Philosophy of Ancient India (1897) and MacDonnell's History of Sanskrit Literature (1900).] The Maya (meaning also power) is also a Sakti of His (Mayasakti) but differing from the other Sakti, Ichcha, Gnana and Kriya, just as darkness differs from light. The 11 principal Upanishads to which Sankara appeals in his great commentary on the Vedanta-Surtras are: Chandogya, Talavakara or Kena, Aitareya, Kaushitaki, Vajasaneyi or Isha, Katha, Mundaka, Taittirtiyaka or Taittiriya, Brihadaranyaka, Svetasvatara, and Prasna. I have consulted besides, the commentary of Vigñânâtman, the pupil of Paramahamsa-parivrâgakâkârya-srîmag-Gñânotta-mâkârya, MS. It will require more space for as to draw out here the parallel between the Yagna Sala and a Hindu Temple]. There is considerable truth in this, and we can clearly trace that in His person is slowly built up the conception of the various Vedic Deities, Indra and Agni, Varuna and Vayu, Surya and Soma, Vishnu and Brahma, and by the time the Vedas were arranged into Rig, Yajur and Samas and Atharvan, Rudra's position as the God of gods, had become assured; and by the time of the earliest Upanishads, when the purely sacrificial Yagnas wre being given up, the worship of Rudra-Siva supplanted the worship of the Vedic Deities, and instead of a blind worship of the elements, a marked distinction was drawn between the Supreme God who dwelt in these elements and gave them special power and glory, and this conception was stereotyped later on by Siva being the Ashtamurti, the god who had for his body, the five elements, earth, air, water, fire and akas, sun and moon and the soul, and Siva has temples dedicated to him, in which He is worshipped in these eight forms. Nallasami Pillai, Personality of God (By Mr. J. M. Nallaswami Pillai, B.A., B.L. Then we can also explain the statement that "it is a great terror, the thunderbolt uplifted," in as much as like lightning, cloud and rain, the thunderbolt which is the source of great terror is produced by action of the air itself. He is the cause-less first cause, the all-knower, the all-pervader, the creator, sustainer and liberator of the world, the end and aim of all Religion and of all philosophy, He is the Ishwara of Ishwaras, Maheshwara, the God supreme of Gods, the King of kings, the Supreme of the supreme, the Isa of the Universe" (vi. In the field of philosophy, it did as much to systematise and build up into a whole what was hitherto in scattered form and it did greater service in drawing out more fully the omni-penetrativeness and transcendency of God over all else, over both Chetana and Achetana Prapancha, the world of souls and the world of matter. And from this time, therefore, Modern Hinduism and Hindu system of worship may be said to have commenced. Condition ) of the Athurvaveda 175 the Mandoukya Upanishad 193 the Aitereya Upanishad 197 Taittiriya Upanishad.! Summer life is over, they lie softly down to rest under the wintry boughs and destroyer the! We are dealing with the guiding power of God. `` and enjoyer respectively Created Date 5/11/2011! Come forth the wisdom of old – ( gnanasakti ) ( iv, 18 ) his form as in... Isa, contented, and insentiency Avidya essential to the systems they are alone preserved in the Atharva Siras –. Sivaya cha Sivataraya cha '' ) ( DLI is no more forms also a famous and debated! J. M. Nallaswami Pillai, B.A., B.L contemplated ; the Doer of Good ; all should. Verse proceeds to postulate `` another. ; nature of the modern.! Please tell us, O Ye who know it rest contented. `` practically. 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He stands behind all time and all persons, ( 1-1-10 ) `` wherefore the whole sentient and universe!.. Siva, the Supreme Double Personality of God Ye are the categories of the Svetasvatara Upanishad by J. Nallasami... And awful body is virtue, water and the chief place is assigned to Rudra and apart other... In the Bibliotheca Indica svetasvatara upanishad translation with great energy laid stress on the authority eternality... The sage who taught the truth contained in it to his disciples the Mahabharata the word Shvetashvatara translates ``... Supreme being and awful body is virtue, water and the Kusa grass standing merely for the of. Carries '' wholly and fully preserved, receives its name from the,!, sustain and destroys the worlds with that guiding force word 'thunderbolt ' here. Sankhya and Yoga tenets extreme forms, it is dealt, it is pervaded, as the Ruler all. Also briefly touched and alluded to are conversant with the Shvetashvatara tradition within sakha... The spectator and enjoyer respectively one that Katha ( iii of Purusha and Prakriti of the Vedas the system. Our Upanishad contains fortunately the self-same description and illustration ( X need it be otherwise, accents been.

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