Police Officers’ Decision Making and Discretion: Forming Suspicion and Making a Stop Table of Contents Abstract Executive Summary 1. Does anyone else need to know what you have decided? What lessons can you take from how things turned out and what might you do differently next time? The National Decision Model is a risk assessment framework, or decision making process, that is used by police forces across the country. Stage 5 – Once you have determined the most appropriate action, it is time to put this in place. If the incident is continuing, go through the NDM again as necessary. In most instances professional judgement should guide officers on whether or not to record the rationale, as well as the nature and extent of any explanation. Were decisions monitored and reassessed where necessary? Is this a situation for the police alone to deal with? There is no simple model that can address all the issues and considerations of an investigation. CDM Core 5 III. The objectives of saving lives and reducing harm are, therefore, entirely consistent with the police mission and the Code of Ethics. Were decisions proportionate, legitimate, necessary and ethical? Is there any legislation that covers the process? This distinguishes the NDM from other decision-making models and recognises the need for all police decisions to be consistent with the principles and standards of behaviour set out in the Code. Develop a working strategy to guide subsequent stages by asking: This stage involves considering the powers, policies and legislation that could apply in this particular situation. When Should The National Decision Model Be Used? © College of Policing (2020). Emergency situations may involve differing professional opinions on the best course of action. We use our imagination to go beyond the limits of our personal experience to test our ethical decision making and to create a mental data bank to call upon when faced with real world choices. Was it what you wanted or expected to happen? The Joint Decision Model (JDM) has been adapted from the NDM to enable this to happen. The NDM has six key elements. reasonable in the circumstances facing them at the time? These dilemmas or conflicts arise when the actions of one or a group interferes with the interests of another person or group. It is to be used by all officers, decision makers, and assessors that are involved in the whole decision process. The NDM can be useful for examining decisions made and action taken, whether by a supervisor or during an informal investigation or a formal inquiry. In regard to police decision making generally, I thoroughly agree that it has been an underappreciated way of thinking about policing and also police administration. At the action step, decision makers are required to make and implement appropriate decisions. It provides five different stages that officers can follow when making any type of decision and it was meant as a replacement for the Conflict Management Model. Forty-four, one-on … Any notes should be proportionate to the situation. The NDM has the Code of Ethics in the centre, whereas the JDM has Working Together, Saving Lives, Reducing Harm. If appropriate, evaluate the impact of the decision on outcomes. The record should be proportionate to the seriousness of the situation or incident, particularly if this involves a risk of harm to a person. What is the most likely outcome and what would be the implications? C – the principles and standards of the Code of Ethics considered during decision making, I – information and intelligence known about the situation, A – how it was assessed and what the working strategy was, P – any powers, policies, legislation that applied. Managers and others can use it to review decisionsand actions, and promote learning. Decision makers may find the mnemonic CIAPOAR provides a useful structure for recording the rationale behind their decisions (eg, brief notes in notebooks against individual letters). As long as the police representatives can agree the proposed decision is proportionate, lawful, necessary and ethical, there is no conflict with the Code of Ethics. This model is described on the JESIP site as ‘ how to bring together the available information, reconcile potentially differing priorities and then make effective decisions togethe r’. In a fast-moving incident, the police service recognises that it may not always be possible to segregate thinking or response according to each phase of the model. However, responding to emergencies is a multi-agency activity and the resolution of an emergency will usually involve collaboration between police, fire and rescue, and ambulance services. PLS 308 – Public Administration Topic: Decision Making Decision Making Decision making involves choosing between two or more alternatives − Remember that not making a decision is a decision − It has four major elements − Problem definition: clearly there are … Were decisions reasonable in the circumstances facing the decision maker? Accountability – You are answerable for your decisions, actions and omissions, Honesty – You are truthful and trustworthy, Integrity – You always do the right thing, Objectivity – You make choices on evidence and your best professional judgement, Openness – You are open and transparent in your actions and decisions, Respect – You treat everyone with respect, Selflessness – You act in the public interest. When discussing whether to use ML in police decision-making, it is important to compare ML, not to ideal decision-making, but to human decision-making (Bennett Moses and Chan, 2016, p. 7). Review the process and determine whether or not you could have done things better and what you would do in the future if you were faced with a similar, or the same problem. Questions remain on how influential certain characteristics such as officer sex, race, age, education, and attitude can be on officer behavior. Managers and others can use it to review decisions and actions, and promote learning. This approach to making decisions may develop over time. Reaching a joint decision that is not necessarily the same one as the police would have decided on if they were the only agency making the decision is the nature of collaboration and a feature of joint working. , 2016 ). The Code of Ethics sets out the policing principles that members of the police service are expected to uphold and the standards of behaviour they are expected to meet. The five identified themes of: information, safety, planning, respite, and Making Model The National Decision Model (NDM) is suitable for all decisions and should be used by everyone in policing. There are various stages to the process, but all should be taken while considering the mission statement and core values. The model was created in 1987 within the Newport News Police Department by John Eck and William Spelman, who were researching and experimenting with problem-oriented policing techniques. Acting responsibly towards the public, the policing profession and its partners, and to ourselves personally, will reduce the number and severity of ethical difficulties faced in policing, but it will not eliminate them. Is there any national guidance covering this type of situation? In reviewing and reflecting on decisions, questions that supervisors might ask themselves include: Even where the outcome was not as planned, if the decision was reasonable and proportionate in the circumstances, and made in accordance with the Code of Ethics, the decision maker deserves the support of their supervisor and that of the organisation. Is what I am considering consistent with the Code of Ethics? In a fast-moving incident, the police service recogni… The Association of Chief Police Officers, ACPO, decided that the Conflict Management Model, though effective, needed updating and renaming so that it would be used for making a wider variety of decisions. What Are The Stages Of The National Decision Model. Decision makers should have this uppermost in their minds throughout the decision-making process. This paper suggests that the most appropriate Am I the appropriate person to deal with this? The model has at its centre the Code of Ethics, as the touchstone for all decision making. Of the existing studies that investigate the influences of officer characteristics, the results are mixed on how influential these characteristics are. That is, intuitive reasoning develops through instinctive response, general experience and focused learning (Patton, 2003). The NDM is the primary decision model for the police service. Stage 3 – Knowing what the problem is, you will need to determine what powers you and the police have in order to combat the problem. In some circumstances the need to document decisions is prescribed by statute, required by organisational strategies, policies or local practices, or left to the decision maker’s discretion. Did you recognise and acknowledge instances of initiative or good decisions (and were they passed to managers where appropriate)? You will use this information, gathered in stage 1, throughout the rest of the process and once your decisions are being assessed and judged after the event. Each component provides the user with an area for focus and consideration. The concept of an identified police decision-making model was supported by the logistic regression results. It can be applied: Decision makers can use the NDM to structure a rationale of what they did during an incident and why. The SARA model is the main problem-oriented policing strategy that breaks down problem solving into 4 simple steps that are easy for police officers to remember and understand. gation decision-making model places the suspect’s expected utility evaluations that drive the immediate choice of making a denial or a confession within a larger context, as depicted in Figure 1 . Stage 1 – Gather information about the problem in hand. New Study: Expert vs. Novice Use-Of-Force Decision-Making - December 21, 2020 Subscribe To Our Newsletter Join the 100,000+ law enforcement professionals who receive the weekly Calibre newsletter filled with analysis of force encounters caught on video, training articles, product reviews, expert commentary and more. The NDM is based around the police force mission statement and its core values and not only was the model developed while considering all of these factors but those that use it are reminded that they should consider the core values when completing each of the stages. When commanders arrive at the scene of a major incident, it is essential that they can quickly establish what is happening around them and jointly agree a plan of action. The SARA model is a decision-making model that incorporates analysis and research, tailoring solutions to specific problems, and most importantly, evaluating the effectiveness of those responses. This is achieved through a co-ordinated, multi-agency response. There are numerous decision making models around that attempt to map the investigative process. Chapter 10: Ethics and Decision-Making 241of service of the officer and the wishes of the complainant have been shown to affect officer decisions. Decision makers are accountable for their decisions and must be prepared to provide a rationale for what they did and why. What information or intelligence was available? What happened as a result of your decision? All officers and those that will implement and benefit from the model will receive the full training required to operate and use the model efficiently. What could go wrong (and what could go well)? The These standards originate from the Police (Conduct) Regulations 2012 (for police officers) and the Police Staff Council Joint Circular 54 (for police staff). Stage 2 – Determine the threat, its nature, and its extent so that you can assess the situation and make the right decisions. Your decision making process will be developed and improved upon over time with experience and professionalism. Step 1: Collect Information 6 B. Could I explain my action or decision in public? How were feasible options identified and assessed? Joint decisions must be made with reference to the over-arching or primary aim of any response to an emergency: to save lives and reduce harm. What does the police service expect of me in this situation? Which powers will be needed and will the required powers and policies need any additional or specialist manpower to be instigated and introduced? They reflect the expectations that the College of Policing and the public have of the behaviour of those working in policing. It can be applied: 1. to spontaneous incidents or planned operations 2. by an individual or team of people 3. to both operational and non-operational situations. It can also be used to improve future decisions and to help create techniques and methods for many situations. to spontaneous incidents or planned operations. According to this model, the conceptual underpinning of the decision-making process highlights the strong interaction of biological, psychological, and socio-structural factors that inform how decisions are Decision makers (ie, potentially everyone in policing) could ask themselves: This analytical stage involves assessing the situation, including any specific threat, the risk of harm and the potential for benefits. The review step requires decision makers to review and reflect on what happened once an incident is over. It is to be used by all officers, decision makers, and assessors that are involved in the whole decision process. 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