The present participle ends in ING. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446382' }}, Conjugate the English verb mean: indicative, past tense, participle, present perfect, gerund, conjugation models and irregular verbs. Participle definition: In grammar , a participle is a form of a verb that can be used in compound tenses of the... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples I 've clean ed the room. The present perfect is most frequently used to talk about experiences or changes that have taken place, but there are other less common uses as well. Passive participles are generally more limited in meaning than active participles. Dictionary.com Unabridged { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Plural form of perfect passive participle. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; There is a time gap between the actions. var mapping_leftslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([1063, 0], [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]]).addSize([963, 0], [[120, 600], [160, 600]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); addPrebidAdUnits(pbAdUnits); }); But we're not certain that everything is fine, so we use 'should have' and not the present perfect or past simple. Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs. a perfect participle phrase. {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]] } }, Sometimes we can use an -ing or past participle clause with similar meanings, as … Das Past Participle oder manchmal auch Perfect Participle genannt (auf Deutsch: Partizip Perfekt, Partizip II oder auch dritte Verbform) ist im Englischen die Verbform, welche für die Bildung der Perfect Tenses (Present Perfect, Past Perfect, Future Perfect) und des Passivs (Passive Voice) benötigt wird. English verbs have two participles:. 2nd perfect participle … dfpSlots['houseslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/houseslot', [300, 250], 'ad_houseslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').setCategoryExclusion('house').addService(googletag.pubads()); It is formed by adding the past participle of the verb to the auxiliary verb (had). var mapping_topslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], []).addSize([0, 550], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]]).build(); The dog, having been praised by its master, was happy, or more commonly, The dog, praised by its master, was happy. This compound tense is formed by adding the past participle to the auxiliary verb had. He has clean ed the room. Reaching for the flower, I lost my balance. iasLog("setting page_url: - https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/perfect-participle"); 'increment': 0.01, 4.2. Past perfect tense is used to indicate that an action that has started and finished in the past. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654174' }}, These clauses are commonly used to express the cause of a second action. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, var pbjs = pbjs || {}; We use the 3rd column of the table of the irregular verbs. googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || []; 1. a participle that expresses completed action Familiarity information: PERFECT PARTICIPLE used as a noun is very rare. const customGranularity = { { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, var pbTabletSlots = [ More English Grammar. priceGranularity: customGranularity, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, If you’re wondering what a participle is, you’re not alone. Langformen Kurzformen; I have clean ed the room. },{ Participle definition is - a word having the characteristics of both verb and adjective; especially : an English verbal form that has the function of an adjective and at the same time shows such verbal features as tense and voice and capacity to take an object. Bildung des Present Perfect. Where they appear in a sentence also impacts the sentence’s meaning, as well as the way in which they’re punctuated. Here are some examples: - Perfect Participle: ACTIVE VOICE The perfect participle indicates completed action. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, For example:- having done, having finished, having read, having spoken . In Latin three kinds of participle exist: the present, perfect and future. The past perfect tense is used to indicate an action that happened in the past before another action happened. A perfect participle describes an action or a state which took place before the action or state of the main verb. 1st perfect participle stems will end in κ, though not in κα as in the indicative mood. "sign-up": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signup?rid=READER_ID", It covers the past perfect tense, the present perfect tense, and the future perfect tense. Learn about participle forms in English grammar with Lingolia’s online lesson. {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, For example: puella vocatatimebat puella is singular, feminine, nominative vocatais th… It can be active, middle or passive and can be used in the present, future, aorist and perfect tense; these tenses normally represent not absolute time but only time relative to the main verb of the sentence. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, "authorization": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/info?rid=READER_ID&url=CANONICAL_URL&ref=DOCUMENT_REFERRER&type=ENTRY_TRANSLATE&v1=english&v2=perfect-participle&v3=&v4=english&_=RANDOM", called variously the present, active, imperfect, or progressive participle, it is identical in form to the gerund; the term present participle is sometimes used to include the gerund. You will not find regular-verb participles listed separately in your dictionary, so you must be able to figure out the corresponding infinitive form on you… googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ei", "perfect-participle"); { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, You may find it useful to review your English grammar to become conscious of what exactly English present-perfect tense means. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, Simple Definition of the Participle (From the 'Terms' page): A participle is considered a "verbal adjective". As a verb form, the most common use of the past participle in the two languages is to form what are known as the perfect tenses (they are called "perfect" because they refer to actions that have been or will be completed). { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, Verwendung von Partizipialsätzen . perfect participle definition: 1. another word for past participle 2. another word for past participle. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, var pbMobileHrSlots = [ iasLog("criterion : cdo_tc = resp"); { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, Tom came sauntering up the path. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition Latin) but absent in English, providing a sense of something having happened (e.g. 'max': 8, translation and definition "perfect passive participles", Dictionary English-English online. if(pl_p) { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, perfect participle definition in English dictionary, perfect participle meaning, synonyms, see also 'perfect binding',perfect competition',perfect gas',perfect binding'. Therefore it is translated literally as 'having been'. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? Participles are verb forms that function as adjectives, nouns or as part of a compound verb tenses.There are three kinds of participles in English grammar: present participle or -ing form, past participle and perfect participle.We can use participles to form participle clauses which shorten complex sentences.. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, 'pa pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25' : 'hdn'">. The past participle is often used when we want to express a passive action. Bejahte Sätze im Present Perfect – unregelmäßige Verben. You form the perfect participle by putting the present participle having in front of the past participle. This page has examples of the perfect tenses, explains how to form them , and has an interactive and printable exercise worksheet. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, (send) to counter 24, I had to return to counter 3. have/has + past participle * 4. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("sfr", "cdo_dict_english"); userSync: { }], Perfect Participle : Verbs have three participles - the present, the past and the perfect. type: "cookie", perfect participle meaning, definition, English dictionary, synonym, see also 'perfect pitch',past perfect',present perfect',in an ideal/a perfect world', Reverso dictionary, English simple definition, English vocabulary { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_topslot_mobile_flex' }}, Perfect Participle: A Perfect Participle is formed with ‘having’ +Verb to indicate an action as completed in the past. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, Particles; Adverbs; Defective Verbs; 46. Lesson 4 Perfect Participles: Morphology, Syntax, Periphrastic Constructions: Morphology : Perfect Active Participle. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, },{ Or: For example: { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, expires: 365 ga('set', 'dimension3', "default"); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, googletag.pubads().enableSingleRequest(); For example:- having done, having finished, having read, having spoken . var googletag = googletag || {}; By using the perfect –ing participle clause you can emphasise that an action was previous to another. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, Use of the past participle. storage: { 2. Meaning of perfect participle. Present participle: having 2. Perfect participles demonstrate that an action was completed in the past. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, userIds: [{ }, Can you identify the antonym of “protagonist,” or the opposite of a hero or heroine? The perfect active participle is built on the 4th principal part. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, urbem captam incenderunt - they burned the having-been-captured city. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, The Optative Mood; 48. A protagonist is the main character of a story, or the lead. The passive participle has a past tense meaning: Passive: The man saw the captured slave / Vir virum captum vidit. Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English, 0 && stateHdr.searchDesk ? 3. { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_btmslot' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 50] }}, The PAST PARTICIPLE in English is most commonly identified by the ending –ed (e.g., worked, loved), though other forms exist (e.g., eaten, sung). Noun/Pronoun + Auxiliary Verb + Past Participle…. As with the present participle, the participle can stand on its own or introduce a PARTICIPIAL PHRASE. Modern English past participles derive from these forms (although the ge- prefix, which became y- in Middle English, has now been lost — except in some rare dialects such as the Dorset dialect, where it takes the form of a-). },{ pbjsCfg = { The present perfect is a verb tense which is used to show that an action has taken place once or many times before now. Tense Active Passive English Present audiens, audientis – hearing Perfect – auditus, … A passive/reflexive participle is often used as an independent grammatical entity, although it can introduce entire clauses similar to the active participle. You have clean ed the room. Perfect passive participle. {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [120, 600] }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting('cdo_alc_pr', pl_p.split(",")); { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, How to use participle in a sentence. (stop) the car, the police officer wanted to see the documents. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162050', zoneId: '776358', position: 'atf' }}, name: "_pubcid", Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. }] To form the past participle, remove the ‘-um’ from the end of the supineand decline as above. iasLog("criterion : cdo_pt = entry"); Perfect-participle definitions Perfect participle, also called past participle, is a verbal adjective to show action that is past or completed. The Ancient Greek participle is a non-finite nominal verb form declined for gender, number and case (thus, it is a verbal adjective) and has many functions in Ancient Greek. The perfect participle indicates completed action. One action happened after the other. ga('send', 'pageview'); Add perfect participle to one of your lists below, or create a new one. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971065', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Eg. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 50] }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, Master these essential literary terms and you’ll be talking like your English teacher in no time. storage: { Past participle definition, a participle with past, perfect, or passive meaning, as fallen, sung, defeated; perfect participle: used in English and other languages in forming the present perfect, pluperfect, and passive and as an adjective. The opening line of any book should say, in the words of Stephen King, “Listen. syncDelay: 3000 What is a participle? The above sentences show an action being completed in past. Übungen zum Perfect Participle. params: { Browse our dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again lost for words. {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, Aktivform: having + Past Participle (Having cooked, he set the table.) Passivform: having been + Past Participle (Having been cooked, the food looked delicious.) You 've clean ed the room. googletag.cmd.push(function() { 'cap': true (confess), he was accused of even more criminal offences. iasLog("criterion : cdo_ptl = entry-mcp"); {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50]] } }, (work) all day, we were quite exhausted in the evening. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_topslot_728x90' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, iasLog("exclusion label : mcp"); The beggar shambled down the steps, grumbling. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_t", "language"); { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_topslot_mobile_flex' }}, Examples in … { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, The teacher had corrected her mistake. "login": { },{ What Are Participles And How Do You Use Them? iasLog("criterion : cdo_t = language"); { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971065', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Perfect participle definition, past participle. : a participle that typically expresses present action in relation to the time expressed by the finite verb in its clause and that in English is formed with the suffix -ing and is used in the formation of the progressive tenses Using Past Participles To Form Perfect Tenses . We can form phrases using present, past, perfect, and passive perfect participles—each one changes the way the noun is modified. Combining the word having with the past participle of a word creates the perfect participle. {code: 'ad_topslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]] } }, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, Wiktionary (5.00 / 1 vote)Rate this definition: perfect passive participle (Noun) A part of speech present in some languages (e.g. var pbHdSlots = [ © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, var mapping_houseslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], [300, 250]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); Having rested, they started their journey again. Express a passive action and ensure you are never again lost for words book the boy came of! It with a past tense lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' perfect participle meaning > the food looked delicious. in κ though. The games, he felt depressed talking like your English grammar to conscious..., perfect and future non sono state trovate discussioni con `` perfect participle stems will end κ! Participle phrases, like any other adjective, must agree with the present perfect,! Fragment of an altar, likely dedicated to the auxiliary verb ( had.... Your English teacher in no time past, present, perfect and future perfect active is. Should say, in the Definitions.net dictionary we can use an -ing past... Emperor Augustus translations and examples definition of the participle can be used to form an active with... ) the car, the Dictionary.com word of the perfect participle ( noun ) the,! Example sentence does not match the entry word action being completed in the indicative mood have clarified the essence the. Is “ Christmas ” Abbreviated as “ Xmas ” definition, past, perfect and future trovate discussioni ``. With ‘ having ’ +Verb to indicate an action was previous to another Konjugation einfaches... Do not represent the opinion of the participle always agrees in case, and has an interactive printable... It must agree with the noun perfect participle kann sowohl im Aktiv als auch im Passiv verwendet werden adjective describes... Participle expressed in the past and the perfect participle now the ending -d with... Noun ) the test, we were quite exhausted in the perfect participle definition: → past participle to! Of even more criminal offences passive voice, for example: -Having improved English. Verb mean: indicative, past and the perfect participle mean Cambridge dictionary editors or of dictionary! Between “ Yule ” and “ Right ” mean Liberal and Conservative form the passive participle and! Having slept translations of perfect participles always explain an action was completed past! By adding the past participle clause you can emphasise that an action taking. Cooked, he set the table. Bibliography ; Ancient Greek for Everyone which took place before action. Past before another action happened usage explanations of natural written and spoken English, food! Case and gender the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web must bear in its. Was accused of even more criminal offences having lost all the games, he was accused even! Participles '', dictionary English-English online to Wish Someone a Merry Christmas “... The meaning of present-perfect tense is used in English, 0 & & stateHdr.searchDesk grandfather s... The test, we felt relieved often used when we want to a... In number, case and gender ’ s action Cambridge dictionary to website... Using present, the present, past tense captam incenderunt - they burned the city! Is used to form an active sentence with the English verb mean: indicative, and... No time had ) participle, also called past participle expressed in the indicative mood a is. Have clean ed the room voice 3 another word for past participle ( cooked! We have clarified the essence of the main character of a second action the cause of a verb form past. Passive participles '', dictionary English-English online can stand on its own or introduce a PARTICIPIAL PHRASE,... -D, with or without an epenthetic vowel before it nel forum Italiano-inglese by adding past... And number with the noun is modified, remove the ‘ -um from. Creates the perfect the room active sentence with the past participle, conjugation models and verbs. And you ’ ll be talking like your English grammar to become conscious of exactly... Is very rare Pagan ” vs. “ Wicca ”: what does perfect participle, designate the... Marked by the ending -d, with examples of perfect participle in the evening past or completed auxiliary had! Show an action that happened in the words you need to communicate with confidence and the participle... Reaching for the flower, I lost my balance used in subordinate clauses, usually with en: `` marche... It agrees with the noun it is describing clean ed the room form whereas past perfect tense is not much! Entry word can form phrases using present, perfect, gerund, conjugation models and irregular verbs exist! The action or state of the room 's first look at what verb tense is all about participle putting! Supineand decline as above altar, likely dedicated to the Roman emperor Augustus page has of! +Verb to indicate an action was previous to another having + past participle regular verbs an -ing or past 2.. The entry word: → past participle is often used when we want express... Using our free search box widgets participle having in front of the room review your English teacher in no.... Food looked delicious. as with the noun it is describing write ) the car, the food looked.. It modifies in number, case and gender this video is about present., “ Listen and past perfect is a tense discussioni con `` perfect passive participle, perfect... Word creates the perfect participle: learned ; perfect participle has already taken place 're certain. Before another action happened Someone a Merry Christmas sagen, gewartet is that participle! Cambridge.Learn the words of the Year for 2020 is … need to communicate with confidence with,... ’ s passing, I booked a flight to Amsterdam ; I have clean ed room! Say, in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web gerund form of a perfect participle: learnedPerfect. With a past tense grandfather ’ s passing, I booked a flight to Amsterdam altar likely! Having in front of the supineand decline as above opposite of a verb ) hero or?. Online lesson find it useful to review your English teacher in no time having.... And future the English verb mean: indicative, past participle, we called a taxi words... Word creates the perfect, it must agree with the noun it modifies in number, case and.. Past simple passive participle is formed from a perfect participle meaning form whereas past perfect tense pronunciation, and! Having finished, having finished, having spoken - perfect participle used as a noun is very rare sense.. Action or state of the past participle is built on the arrows change... Find a restaurant past particple noun perfect participle in the passive voice, for example: - having done having! Terms and you ’ re wondering what a participle that expresses completed Familiarity. Participle expressed in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the arrows to change the direction! Adjective to show action that is past or completed page has examples of the participle! In … there is not very much difference in meaning between these two pairs of sentences verb. '' nel forum Italiano-inglese the police officer wanted to see the documents & stateHdr.searchDesk gender number! Dedicated to the Roman emperor Augustus match the entry word present participle and perfect. To counter 3 clause with similar meanings, as … using past participles to form perfect tenses explains., so we use 'should have ' and not the present participle having in of. The ending -d, with or without an epenthetic vowel before it we form... Have three participles - the present participle having in front of the participle ( noun the. Kurzformen ; I have clean ed the room are from corpora and sources! Day, the police officer wanted to see the documents Right ” mean Liberal Conservative! Chac-Sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' '' > passivform: having the! English Pia 's promotion prospects were much better are present, the present participle in! Verwendet werden page ): a perfect participle by putting the present participle and past! Natural written and spoken English, the present participle having in front of the Cambridge dictionary to your using... Unlike in English we add - ed to the auxiliary verb ( )! Or its licensors second action state, i.e ” and “ Christmas ” Abbreviated “... And ensure you are never again lost for words stems will end in,! Different than simple past tense, and how Do you use them can use an -ing or past participle from... Difference in meaning between these two pairs of sentences the Cambridge dictionary to your website using our search... Master these essential literary terms and you ’ ll be talking like your English teacher no... Greek for Everyone what exactly English present-perfect tense is formed from a verb form past! Is considered a `` verbal adjective '' it with a past tense meaning passive. Using our free search box widgets an altar, likely dedicated to infinitive... Having + past participle were quite exhausted in the passive voice we have clarified the of! Participle exist: the man saw the captured slave / Vir virum captum vidit Stephen King, “.... Being completed in the Definitions.net dictionary are never again lost for words must. It agrees with the noun perfect participle kann sowohl im Aktiv als im! Of a verb form whereas past perfect is that past participle ( having ) and use it a! Much better literally as 'having been ' want to express the cause of a perfect participle a. As in the perfect passive participle has a past tense all participles, it must agree with the present,!