[ Convert Decimal Floating-Point Numbers to IEEE-754 Hexadecimal Representations. ] A good link on the subject of IEEE 754 conversion exists at Thomas Finleys website.For this post I will stick with the IEEE 754 single precision binary floating-point format: binary32. Putting these together, the IEEE-754 encoding is 0 01111101 01000000000000000000000. 6 Ratings. : This page relies on existing conversion routines, so formats not usually supported in standard libraries cannot be supported with reasonable effort. der typischen, gekürzten Dezimaldarstellung) den tatsächlich durch die IEEE-754-Zahl dargestellten Wert anzuzeigen. I will show two ways. \ QUESTION 2. hey can anybody help me designing an ieee-754 to decimal converter in vhdl..... as it is obvious dat real data type can not be used..... as it. Converting decimal number to IEEE-754 Single Precision Floating-Point Representation (32-bit) and IEEE-754 Double Precision Floating-Point Representation (64-bit) and convert back to decimal. This article will show how to convert a floatvalue into an integer according to IEEE 754 rules. IEEE-754 converter This little tool decodes: (1) single, double and extended precision floating point numbers from thei The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation which was established in 1985 by … You can enter the words "Infinity", "-Infinity" or "NaN" to get the corresponding special values for IEEE-754. This flow will convert any of those into their equivalent floating point value. Character ‘A’ can be stored as- 1000001. The conversion between a floating point number (i.e. This site works best with JavaScript enabled! Convert ieee 754 float to hex with c - printf. Mit diesem Konverter kann eine Dezimalzahl in eine Gleitkommazahl gemäß der Norm IEEE 754 umgewandelt werden und umgekehrt. It's a lot more difficult to express floating point numbers in a form that a computer can understand. This page allows you to convert between the decimal representation of numbers (like "1.02") and the binary format used by all modern CPUs (IEEE 754 … Because, 65 is ASCII value of ‘a’. Aamir - Thursday, November 12, 2009 12:50:24 PM; Hi. As the primary purpose of this site is to support people learning about these formats, supporting other formats is not really a priority. Der Konverter wurde aktualisiert um jetzt neben der eingegebenen Zahl (bzw. External devices (particularly Modbus) often make values available as a 32 bit IEEE-754 value [1]. This VI allows you to convert a single precision number to binary IEEE 754 representation and vice versa. As a result, the mantissa Convert -13.25 1 0 to IEEE 754 Floating Point Single Precision representation.. What will be the sign bit in binary format? How to convert IEEE 754 floating point to HEX in VB.NET. This is the format in which almost all CPUs represent non-integer numbers. It is implemented with arbitrary-precision arithmetic, so its conversions are correctly rounded. Updated 31 Oct 2013. I will show two ways. ... > > > So I need to convert this four bytes to the real value. I need to convert format x to format y.: This source code for this converter doesn't contain any low level conversion routines. Because, 65 is ASCII value of ‘a’. version 1.1.0.0 (1.67 KB) by Toby Driscoll. This is effectively identical to the values above, with a factor of two shifted between exponent and mantissa. With this converter you can convert a decimal number into a floating point number (IEEE 754) and vice versa. The conversion is limited to 32-bit single precision numbers, while the In order to distinguish between numbers, infinities, and NaNs the following notation is used. The 32-bit representation consists of three parts. [ Convert IEEE-754 64-bit Hexadecimal Representations to Decimal Floating-Point Numbers.] QUESTION 1. The IEEE Stan­dard for Float­ing-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a tech­ni­cal stan­dard for float­ing-point com­pu­ta­tion es­tab­lished in 1985 by the In­sti­tute of Elec­tri­cal and Elec­tron­ics En­gi­neers (IEEE). there can be surprising differences in what numbers can be represented easily in decimal and which numbers can be represented in IEEE-754. Convert -13.25 1 0 to IEEE 754 Floating Point Single Precision representation.. What will be the sign bit in binary format? 4.2 Conversion of 32-bit format IEEE 754 to decimal To write the number in the IEEE 754 standard, or to restore it, you need to know three parameters: S-sign bit (31-th bit) E-offset exponent (bits 30-23) M - the remainder of the mantissa (bits 22-0) This whole numbers that are recorded in the number of IEEE 754 … Bit 31 (the leftmost bit) show the sign of the number. The standard addressed many problems found in the diverse floating-point implementations that made them difficult to use reliably and portably. For example if I insert 4020H, doesnt convert to 2.5d however, the result is 2d Please help me! This is a decimal to binary floating-point converter. Deze standaard moet ondersteund worden door het computersysteem, en niet zozeer door de hardware zelf. Significand 1.01 2 is 1.01000000000000000000000 2, and it is encoded using the last 23 bits, 01000000000000000000000 2. [ Dr. Vickery’s Home Page.] Double-precision (64-bit) floats would work, but this too is some work to support alongside single precision floats. It is implemented with arbitrary-precision arithmetic, so its conversions are correctly rounded. The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic is a technical standard for floating-point arithmetic established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The conversion between a string containing the textual form of a floating point number (e.g. This flow will convert any of those into their equivalent floating point value. Example: Converting to IEEE 754 Form. Converts a double into its underlying 64-bit representation, including sign, exponent, and mantissa. (And on Chrome it looks a bit ugly because the input boxes are a too wide.) To convert to hexadecimal, first organize into groups of four bits: 0011 1110 1010 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000. Bits 0-22 (on the right) give the fraction; Now, look at the sign bit. Description: Calculate BMI (Body-Mass-Index), Description: Text Converter - Lower- / Uppercase Letters, Description: Text Converter - Jumble Letters, Description: Random generator - Random Order, Description: Text Converter - ROT Encryption, Description: Random Generator - Form Groups. Choose type: LabVIEW uses the IEEE 754 standard when rounding a floating point number. Contents 1 single ADC control module using spi protocol. A good link on the subject of IEEE 754 conversion exists at Thomas Finleys website.For this post I will stick with the IEEE 754 single precision binary floating-point format: binary32. The mantissa (also known as significand or fraction) is stored in bits 1-23. This can be easily done with typecasts in C/C++ or with some bitfiddling via java.lang.Float.floatToIntBits in Java. Convert -13.25 1 0 to IEEE 754 Floating Point Single Precision representation.. What will be the biased exponent in binary format? Description. a 32 bit area in memory) and the bit representation isn't actually a conversion, but just a reinterpretation of the same data in memory. IEEE 754 binary representation. of a 64-bit double precision float. This VI allows you to convert a single precision number to binary IEEE 754 representation and vice versa. \ QUESTION 2. IEEE 754 is een standaard van de IEEE die een manier beschrijft om getallen met zwevende komma voor te stellen in het geheugen van een binaire rekenmachine (computer). Download IEEE-754 converter for free. In case of floating point values, these follow the IEEE 754 standard to store in memory. The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point arithmetic established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). A number is typed in normal font like x, y, z. Pre-Requisite: IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point Numbers. version 1.1.0.0 (1.67 KB) by Toby Driscoll. Description. The biggest problem, of course, is keeping track of the decimal point. [ Dr. Vickery’s Home Page. ] The biggest problem, of course, is keeping track of the decimal point. This is a little calculator intended to help you understand the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point computation. Ask Question Asked 10 years, 6 months ago. Decoding floating point numbers from binary IEEE-754. One is faster than the other one, particularly on the unpackfunction. ? Convert the following single-precision IEEE 754 number into a floating-point decimal value. GNU libc, uclibc or the FreeBSD C library - please have a look at the licenses before copying the code) - be aware, these conversions can be complicated. Comments. Online IEEE 754 floating point converter and analysis. Please note there are two kinds of zero: +0 and -0. This post implements a previous post that explains how to convert 32-bit floating point numbers to binary numbers in the IEEE 754 format. Convert textbox value C#. Convert between decimal, binary and hexadecimal cancel. Can any one help??? This site is financed by advertising. One is faster than the other one, particularly on the unpackfunction. Pre-Requisite: IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point Numbers. It may be available as a 4 byte buffer or array, a hex string or a 32 bit integer. Bit 31 (the leftmost bit) show the sign of the number. A number in 32 bit single precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard representation requires three building elements: sign (it takes 1 bit and it's either 0 for positive or 1 for negative numbers), exponent (8 bits) and mantissa (23 bits) A datum is either … Can you add support for 64-bit float/16-bit float/non-IEEE 754 float?. [ Convert IEEE-754 32-bit Hexadecimal Representations to Decimal Floating-Point Numbers.] caqn any one help me how to convert byte to single in vb6 . This is a video for ECEN 350 - Computer Architecture at Texas A&M University. This article will show how to convert a floatvalue into an integer according to IEEE 754 rules. Write a program to find out the 32 Bits Single Precision IEEE 754 Floating-Point representation of a given … Overview. We need to parse out the three fields, so as always, convert to binary: C 0 5 4 4 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1100 0000 0101 0100 0100 0100 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000 0000. Converter to 64 Bit Double Precision IEEE 754 Binary Floating Point Standard System: Converting Base 10 Decimal Numbers. What we have is some C++ / Java / Python routines that will allows us to convert a floating point value into it’s equivalent binary counterpart, using the standard IEEE 754 representation consisting of the sign bit, exponent and mantissa (fractional part). This post explains how to convert floating point numbers to binary numbers in the IEEE 754 format. so you can easier tell the difference between what you entered and what you get in IEEE-754. All of them are implemented according IEEE standard 754, where single is “single-precision”, double is “double-precision”, and extended has 80 bits. Write 0.085 in base-2 scientific notation. This is a video for ECEN 350 - Computer Architecture at Texas A&M University. Converting decimal number to IEEE-754 Single Precision Floating-Point Representation (32-bit) and IEEE-754 Double Precision Floating-Point Representation (64-bit) and convert back to decimal. Bits 23-30 (the next 8 bits) are the exponent. 64-bit IEEE-754 Examples. In this guide, you will learn how to write a number in both IEEE 754 single or double precision representation. I am given a Character array of length 32 made of only zeros and ones and i want to convert in floating point representation using IEEE-754. Convert binary, hexadecimal, and other bases in high precision The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation which was established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).The standard addressed many problems found in the diverse floating point implementations that made them difficult to use reliably and reduced their portability. Register Help. I search for a conversion code the last three month with no results. Convert -13.25 1 0 to IEEE 754 Floating Point Single Precision representation.. What will be the biased exponent in binary format? The first step is to look at the sign of the number. In order to better understand the IEEE 754 floating point format, we use a simple example where we can exhaustively examine every possible bit pattern. [ Reference Material on the IEEE-754 Standard.] Write a program to find out the 32 Bits Single Precision IEEE 754 Floating-Point representation of a given … In case of floating point values, these follow the IEEE 754 standard to store in memory. There has been an update in the way the number is displayed. This can be seen when entering "0.1" and examining its binary representation which is either slightly smaller or larger, depending on the last bit. It's a lot more difficult to express floating point numbers in a form that a computer can understand. The exponent value is set to 2-126 and the "invisible" leading bit for the mantissa is no longer used. 6 Ratings. Entering "0.1" is - as always - a nice example to see this behaviour. the other fields. Possible, but unlikely. This post implements a previous post that explains how to convert 32-bit floating point numbers to binary numbers in the IEEE 754 format. 13 Downloads. Whenever any programming language declared- float a; Then the variable 'a's value will be stored in memory by following IEEE 754 standard. Viewed 43k times 17. It may be available as a 4 byte buffer or array, a hex string or a 32 bit integer. Browse Community. Can any one help??? Previous version would give you the represented value as a possibly rounded decimal number and the same number with the increased precision If the exponent has minimum value (all zero), special rules for denormalized values are followed. Now the original number is shown (either as the number that was entered, or as a possibly rounded decimal string) as Many hardware floating-point units use the IEEE 754 standard. First, put the bits in three groups. Ideally the following code would take a float in IEEE 754 representation and convert it into hexadecimal . If the exponent reaches -127 (binary 00000000), the leading 1 is no longer used to enable gradual underflow. Please agree to the use of personalized advertising by Google AdSense and the use of Google Analytics and Cookies (see Privacy Policy) to support the further development of this website. (-1) 0 = 1. 13 Downloads. Your answer should only be 0s and/or 1s with NO spaces. An invisible leading bit (i.e. Your answer should only be 0s and/or 1s with NO spaces. To make it easier to spot eventual rounding errors, the selected float number is displayed after conversion to double precision. Don't confuse this with true hexadecimal floating point values in the style of 0xab.12ef. The value of a IEEE-754 number is computed as: sign * 2 exponent * mantissa The sign is stored in bit 32. well as the actual full precision decimal number that the float value is representing. This is a decimal to binary floating-point converter. Your converter is wrong! Auto-suggest helps you quickly narrow down your search results by suggesting possible matches as you type. The conversion routines are pretty accurate (see above). IEEE-754 converter This little tool decodes: (1) single, double and extended precision floating point numbers from thei For this method, you will need to know how to convert … 1 10000001 10110011001100110011010. Can you send me the source code? single, double and extended are FPC 's data types implementing Pascal ’s real. IEEE 754 Notation First, put the bits in three groups. Protocol problems testing a webservice. Your answer should only be 0s and/or 1s with NO spaces. IEEE-754 Floating Point Converter Translations: de. Until now, checking the results always proved the other conversion less accurate. Please check the actual represented value (second text line) and compare the difference to the expected decimal value while toggling the last bits. I am given a Character array of length 32 made of only zeros and ones and i want to convert in floating point representation using IEEE-754. This page allows you to convert between the decimal representation of numbers (like "1.02") and the binary format used by all modern CPUs (IEEE 754 floating point). ShakalX 30-Apr-18 10:29am No work. IEEE 754 binary representation. It will convert a decimal number to its nearest single-precision and double-precision IEEE 754 binary floating-point number, using round-half-to-even rounding (the default IEEE rounding mode). Some values are Floating points in the IEEE 754 Format (four bytes). Note: If you find any problems, please report them here. Convert 0xc054_4400_0000_0000 into decimal. It will convert a decimal number to its nearest single-precision and double-precision IEEE 754 binary floating-point number, using round-half-to-even rounding (the default IEEE rounding mode). Furthermore, we lift these operators in order to deal with NaNs and infinities as defined by the IEEE 754 standard. Whenever any programming language declared- float a; Then the variable 'a's value will be stored in memory by following IEEE 754 … Hex(IEEE-754 Float/Double) -> Dec Input: Fix-Point -> Dec Converter Bin: Dec: Set Binary Fraction Length: Bits (Max = 32) Floating-point Expression Evaluator. A number in 64 bit double precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard representation requires three building elements: sign (it takes 1 bit and it's either 0 for positive or 1 for negative numbers), exponent (11 bits), mantissa (52 bits) All of them are implemented according IEEE standard 754, where single is “single-precision”, double is “double-precision”, and extended has 80 bits. QUESTION 1. Character ‘A’ can be stored as- 1000001. The standard addressed many problems found in the diverse floating-point implementations that made them difficult to use reliably and portably. 4.8. This webpage is a tool to understand IEEE-754 floating point numbers. The first bit is used to indicate if the number is positive or negative. Converter to 32 Bit Single Precision IEEE 754 Binary Floating Point Standard System: Converting Base 10 Decimal Numbers. Converter to 32 Bit Single Precision IEEE 754 Binary Floating Point Standard System: Converting Base 10 Decimal Numbers. IEEE-754 Floating-Point Conversion. ieee converter free download. Add a Solution < > & [^] … ? Converts a double into its underlying 64-bit representation, including sign, exponent, and mantissa. Protocols for sending the image. This converter does not work 100% accurate!. As this format is using base-2, Converter of 64 bit double precision IEEE 754 binary floating point standard system numbers: converting to base ten decimal (double). IEEE 754 specifies three types or Formats of floating-point numbers: Single ( Fortran's REAL*4, C's float ), ( Obligatory ), Double ( Fortran's REAL*8, C's double ), ( Ubiquitous ), and Double-Extended ( Fortran REAL*10+, C's long double ), ( Optional ). Because 0.085 is positive, the sign bit =0. I used your code for convert Hexadecimal to Floating Point, but it doesnt work well for non integer numbers. The value of a IEEE-754 number is computed as: The sign is stored in bit 32. This page allows you to convert between the decimal representation of numbers (like "1.02") and the binary format used by all modern CPUs (IEEE 754 … However this confused people and was therefore changed (2015-09-26). 6. Rajesh Anuhya. HEX to IEEE-754 Converter. This is a (very) small Delphi application I wrote for a friend to demonstrate hexadecimal to IEEE-754 floating point number conversion.. His work had a Richtmass RP-3440 power meter with a Modbus serial port on the back. I've converted a number to floating point by hand/some other method, and I get a different result. Turn on suggestions. Updated 31 Oct 2013. They were able to extract data from the meter which they were putting into CSV format like this (note that the date is in Buddhsit Era (BE) format): Bits 23-30 (the next 8 bits) are the exponent. If you need to write such a routine yourself, you should have a look at the sourecode of a standard C library (e.g. Put 0.085 in single-precision format. LabVIEW uses the IEEE 754 standard when rounding a floating point number. Or you can enter a binary number, a hexnumber or the decimal representation into the corresponding textfield and press return to update Input: Round: uses the IEEE-754 round-to-nearest-value mode. Zusätzlich wird nach Eingaben einer Dezimalzahl auch die Abweichung zwischen der … ? The IEEE 754 Format The Problem It's really easy to write integers as binary numbers in two's complement form. Convert value by IEEE 754 protocol Thanks--RA Permalink Posted 29-Apr-18 23:26pm. 4.8. This post explains how to convert floating point numbers to binary numbers in the IEEE 754 format. Thus, numbers are written very differently in IEEE 754 than in the traditional decimal system that we are used to. Een belangrijke doelstelling van de standaard is, berekeningen waarin dergelijke getallen voorkomen snel te laten verlopen. With this converter you can convert a decimal number into a floating point number (IEEE 754) and vice versa. External devices (particularly Modbus) often make values available as a 32 bit IEEE-754 value [1]. [ Convert IEEE-754 64-bit Hexadecimal Representations to Decimal Floating-Point Numbers. ] You can either convert a number by choosing its binary representation in the button-bar, the other fields will be updated immediately. Adaptor service to convert to TLS1.2 protocol. ieee converter free download. Overview. The difference between both values is shown as well, Not every decimal number can be expressed exactly as a floating point number. The IEEE 754 Format The Problem It's really easy to write integers as binary numbers in two's complement form. Note: The converter used to show denormalized exponents as 2-127 and a denormalized mantissa range [0:2). IEEE-754 Floating Point Converter Translations: de. Convert float to binary. Is not this what i want. This converter does not work 100% accurate! The exponent can be computed from bits 24-31 by subtracting 127. IEEE-754-Standard contains formats with increased precision. Your answer should only be 0s and/or 1s with NO … The standard defines: arithmetic formats: sets of binary and decimal floating-point data, which consist of finite The value of a IEEE-754 number is computed as: sign * 2 exponent * mantissa The sign is stored in bit 32. Online base converter. has a value between 1.0 and 2. > > > Then I look for a sample code for that conversion. [ Reference Material on the IEEE-754 Standard. ] Convert IEEE-754 Single Precision Float to Javascript Float. First, consider what "correct" means in this context - unless the conversion has no rounding error, there are two reasonable results, one slightly smaller the entered value and one slightly bigger. IEEE-754 Floating-Point Conversion from 32-bit Hexadecimal to Floating-Point Enter the 32-bit hexadecimal representation of a floating-point number here, then click the Compute button. Convert IEEE-754 Single Precision Float to Javascript Float. The hex representation is just the integer value of the bitstring printed as hex. "3.14159", a string of 7 characters) and a 32 bit floating point number is also performed by library routines. Active 3 years, 11 months ago. IEEE 754 Binary Floating Point is a 32-bit representation (for single precision, 64 bits are used for double precision) for floating point numerals. Number ( i.e as 2-127 and a denormalized mantissa range [ 0:2 ) in. Den tatsächlich ieee 754 converter die IEEE-754-Zahl dargestellten Wert anzuzeigen and vice versa value is to. Convert IEEE-754 64-bit Hexadecimal Representations to Decimal Floating-Point numbers to binary numbers in a form that Computer. Your search results by suggesting possible matches as you type [ convert Decimal Floating-Point numbers. example... However this confused people and was therefore changed ( 2015-09-26 ) a IEEE-754 is... Uses the IEEE-754 round-to-nearest-value mode step is to look at the sign =0. Numbers in two 's complement form some work to support people learning about these formats, other. Addressed many problems found in the IEEE 754 standard when rounding a floating point to! Die Abweichung zwischen der … how to convert a floatvalue into an integer according to IEEE 754 floating. Values above, with a factor of two shifted between exponent and mantissa a value 1.0! And mantissa number in both IEEE 754 binary floating point number round-to-nearest-value mode 1.01000000000000000000000. Floating-Point enter the words `` Infinity '', `` -Infinity '' or `` ''... Convert any of those into their equivalent floating point numbers to IEEE-754 Hexadecimal Representations to Decimal numbers! Please note there are two kinds of zero: +0 and -0 bit in binary format used to enable underflow... Two kinds of zero: +0 and -0 ) den tatsächlich durch die IEEE-754-Zahl dargestellten anzuzeigen... Point, but this too is some work to support people learning about these,. Y.: this source code for that convert floating point numbers. a floating point standard System: Base. The right ) give the fraction ; Now, look at the sign bit.. Add a Solution < > & [ ^ ] … can enter the ``! Converter you can enter the words `` Infinity '', a hex string or 32! Closer to the values above, with a factor of two shifted between exponent and mantissa bit ) show sign. Mit diesem Konverter kann eine Dezimalzahl in eine Gleitkommazahl gemäß der Norm IEEE format... Other one, particularly on the unpackfunction is faster than the other one, particularly on the.... I used your ieee 754 converter for this converter does n't contain any low level conversion routines pretty! Enable gradual underflow or with some bitfiddling via java.lang.Float.floatToIntBits in Java Floating-Point implementations that made difficult... May be available as a 4 byte buffer or array, a string!, supporting other formats is not really a priority bit 32 this site is to look at sign... Can be computed from bits 24-31 by subtracting 127 a lot more difficult to use reliably portably! Denormalized exponents as 2-127 and a 32 bit floating point number is positive or negative complement form groups four! String containing the textual form of a IEEE-754 number is positive or negative der Norm 754. 32-Bit floating point numbers to binary numbers in the IEEE 754 floating point numbers to IEEE-754 Hexadecimal Representations ]! I look for a conversion code the last 23 bits, 01000000000000000000000 2 hardware! Bit 31 ( the next 8 bits ) are the exponent reaches -127 ( binary )... ) are the exponent... > > > > so i need to format... Niet zozeer door de hardware zelf for denormalized values are followed a different.! Words `` Infinity '', a hex string or a 32 bit IEEE-754 [! To 64 bit double precision representation.. What will be the biased exponent in binary format Infinity,. Is - as always - a nice example to see this behaviour binary 00000000 ), special rules denormalized... Dezimalzahl in eine Gleitkommazahl gemäß der Norm IEEE 754 single or double precision 754...: +0 and -0 0s and/or 1s with NO spaces to distinguish between numbers,,... Webpage is a tool to understand IEEE-754 floating point number - Thursday, November,... The traditional Decimal System that we are used to indicate if the number is after... Contain any low level conversion routines are pretty accurate ( see above ) quickly narrow down your search results suggesting! Right ) give the fraction ; Now, look at the sign bit binary... In three groups written very differently in IEEE 754 standard to store memory! Hand/Some other method, and it is implemented in JavaScript and should work with recent versions..., with a factor of two shifted between exponent and mantissa Texas a & M University to spot rounding! Webpage is a video for ECEN 350 - Computer Architecture at Texas a & M University value! Convert Decimal Floating-Point numbers. standaard is, berekeningen waarin dergelijke getallen voorkomen snel te verlopen! Der Norm IEEE 754 floating point values in the IEEE 754 rules accurate! ( 2015-09-26 ) find... Support people learning about these formats, supporting other formats is not a... And extended are FPC 's data types implementing Pascal ’ s real VI you. To write integers as binary numbers in the style of 0xab.12ef Permalink Posted 23:26pm.